The traditional 'pack leader' concept goes against my experience, and there is a danger if you equate 'not listening to owner' with 'not seeing owner as leader' - for one, it encourages the owner to be 'more leader' which can lead to harsh methods which are simply going to fuel a dog's anxiety. I have a dog who, if I commanded him to get of the sofa, would become defensive and possibly aggressive, but if I ask him, will pop off like a lamb. And we all - or most of us - know a 'happy' recall voice is more effective than a commanding one. To me, a natural leader would be the Fonz from Happy Days. He doesn't use force, stern commands, boot camp methods and so on - he simply earns respect because everyone recognises that it's a really good idea to follow him. I used to know a greyhound who all the other dogs worshipped - it was amazing to see. He could break up dog-dog aggro just by standing there. One day a man came into the woods with two wolf-dog hybrids and was spouting about how alpha he had to be to dominate these dogs because they were such dominant dogs. One put a pad-mannered paw on the back of the greyhound. The greyhound looked at him, curled his lip ever so slightly and cleared his throat... immediately the wolf-dog fell into line, and proceeded to follow the greyhound around almost grovelling in his footsteps. The best thing was how annoyed the owner was by his grovelling 'alpha' dog!